Northern Sudan is an independent country since July 2011, it has a stable political situation and it is safe to travel, particularly between Khartoum and the Egyptian border, where our operations take place. The people of Sudan are extremely friendly and welcoming.
Northern Sudan is an original, mysterious and unique destination, still unknown to the most, this is the area where the African and Arabic culture meet. Its history is very much connected to the Ancient Egyptian one, the Nile River crosses the Sahara Desert and along its valley lays very interesting archaeological sites of the Egyptian and Meroitic civilizations, most of them are World Heritage protected by Unesco.
There are more pyramids in Sudan than in Egypt!
After the separation from the South, Northern Sudan is still a very large and diverse country. The astonishing landscape of the three deserts, associated to the beauty of the Nile Cataracts, the hidden Nubian villages and the welcoming people make of this place an innovative, unexpected destination.
History of the archaeological sites of Sudan
The magnificence of the archaeological ruins and the impressiveness of the pyramids are testimonial of the quality and of the importance of the Egyptian civilisation in the valley of the Nile.
The most import historical phase begun when the Egyptian Pharaohs conquered the whole Nubian territory building temples and playing an important role on the local culture. Then after a silent period, we have information regarding the birth of a new reign called Kushitic with Napata as its capital (the actual Karima). The golden Nubian period begun in 725 b.C. when the Nubian king Piankhi conquered Egypt and Nile delta. In this period of time the custom of building temples and pyramids as mortuary monuments begun in Nubia while it was already abandoned for several centuries in Egypt. The Nubian pyramids have no burial room inside, the real tomb is dug below the pyramid it self and it is connected with the outside with an inclined tunnel. A votive and offering chapel is located in front of the pyramid but from there there is no access to the pyramid or the burial chamber. Meroe was the most important centre in Sudan and probably in the entire African continent for a few centuries. Towards the 4th century a.D. the city undergoes a decline phase, when the Ethiopian Christian king of Axum, Ezana, invaded Meroe and with this the big empire of the Kushitic dynasty came to an end.
The Sudanese people can be divided into several distinct people groups or tribes. Each of these peoples have a unique identity and traditions. During a visit in Sudan it is easy to notice that there are major differences in the characteristic of the people who they come from different areas of this vast country.
Ethnic groups in Sudan are: Arabs 70%, others being Arabized ethnic groups of Nubians, Copts, and Beja. Sudan has 597 tribes that speak over 400 different languages and dialects Sudanese Arabs are by far the largest ethnic group in Sudan, they are almost entirely Muslims; while the majority speak Sudanese Arabic; some other Arab tribes speak different Arabic dialects. Sudanese Arabs of Northern and Eastern parts descend primarily from migrants from the Arabian peninsula and some of the pre-existing indigenous populations of Sudan, most predominately the Nubian people who also share a common history with Egypt. Additionally, a few pre-Islamic Arabian tribes existed in Sudan from earlier migrations into the region from Western Arabia. The vast majority of Arab tribes in Sudan migrated into the Sudan in the 12th and 13th century, intermarried with the indigenous African populations and introduced Islam.
In common with much of the rest of the Arab world, the gradual process of Arabization in Sudan following these Arabian migrations after the 12th century led to the predominance of the Arabic language and aspects of Arab culture, leading to the shift among a majority of Sudanese today to an Arab ethnic identity.
Sudan consists of numerous other Arab tribes such as the Shaigya, Ja’alin, Shukria, Bedouins, Arakieen and many more, Johann Ludwig Burckhardt said that the true Ja’alin from the eastern desert of Sudan are exactly like the Bedouin of eastern Arabia.